R/p-R test

The R-pR test is an immunoenzymatic test that allows the quantitative assay of the whole and phosphorylated form of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein in any biological sample.

The Italian patent is under concession, the international extension is currently ongoing.

Diagnostic Applications

The R-pR test can support the diagnosis and prognosis of clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of kidney cancer. The test is performed on the urinary sample of patients affected by ccRCC or at risk to develop it. The negativity for p-RKIP is highly indicative of the presence of the tumor while RKIP reduction correlates proportionally with the risk of progression and recurrence.

Our Biomarkers

Raf kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP)

Raf kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) is a cytoplasmic kinase that regulates many cellular processes. Scientific literature has clearly established its role as a metastasis inhibitor so that its intracellular levels correlate with the aggressiveness and progression of many cancers 1. RKIP reduction was correlated, in particular, with survival in the medium and long term and with the recurrence in prostate cancer, colon-rectum cancer, melanoma, insulinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, anaplastic thyroid cancer and kidney cancer 2,3 RKIP is therefore considered a prognostic biomarker whose level of expression is inversely correlated with the aggressiveness and progression of many tumours. In recent years, the attention of many researchers is also shifting to the phosphorylated form of RKIP, which in some cases exhibits diagnostic and prognostic capabilities superior to the native form of the protein. This role has been described for pulmonary carcinoma4, breast cancer 5, melanoma6, nose-pharyngeal carcinoma7 and clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)8.




  1. Al-Mulla F et al. J Cell Physiol. 2013 Aug;228(8):1688-702;
  2. Lamiman K et al. Crit Rev. Oncog. 2014;19(6):455-68;
  3. Farooqi AA, et al. Exp Mol Med. 2015 Sep 25;47:e185;
  4. Sara Huerta-Yepez et al. BMC Cancer 2011;
  5. Al-Mulla et al. Am J Cancer Res 2013;3(5):446-464;
  6. Cardile V. et al. Acta Histochem 2013 Oct 17;115(8):795-802;
  7. Li S. et al. Radiat Oncol. 2016 Sep 20;11(1):121;
  8. Papale M. et. Al. Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 18. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16341.

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